THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT / THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK / ALBANY, NY 12234

 

TO:

Higher Education and Professional Practice Committee

FROM:

Johanna Duncan-Poitier

 

 

 

SUBJECT:

Proposed Amendment to the Rules of the Board of Regents and Regulations of the Commissioner of Education Relating to Requirements for Certification in the Educational Leadership Service

DATE:

June 5, 2006

STRATEGIC GOAL:

Goals 2 and 3

AUTHORIZATION(S):

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY

 

Issue for Decision

 

Should the Regents amend section 7.1 of the Rules of the Board of Regents and section 52.21(c) and Subparts 80-2, 80-3, and 80-5 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education, relating to requirements for certification in the educational leadership service?

 

Reason(s) for Consideration

 

Review of Policy.
         

Proposed Handling

 

The proposed amendment is submitted for action at the June 2006 Regents meeting.

 

 

 

Procedural History

 

The proposed amendment was discussed at the February and March 2006 meetings of the Board of Regents. A Notice of Proposed Rule Making concerning the proposed amendment was published in the State Register on April 19, 2006. An Assessment of Public Comment is attached.

 

Background Information

 

The purpose of the proposed amendment is to strengthen requirements that candidates must meet in order to be certified as school building leaders, school district leaders, and school district business leaders for service in New York State public schools.  The amendment will make the following changes, designed to improve the preparation of school leaders in New York State and the management of the State's public schools:

 

       Require candidates to complete approved programs to be certified in the educational leadership service, and eliminate the transcript evaluation route to certification in the educational leadership service.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recommendation

 

I recommend that the Board of Regents take the following action:

 

VOTED:  That section 7.1 of the Rules of the Board of Regents be amended; that the titles of Subparts 80-2, 80-3, and 80-5 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education be amended; that the titles of sections 52.21(b)(3)(xvii), 80-3.3, 80-3.4, 80-3.7, 80-5.6, and 80-5.13 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education be amended; that sections 52.21(c)(2)(ii)(b), 52.21(c)(3)(ii)(b), 52.21(c)(3)(vi)(c), 52.21(c)(4)(iii), 52.21(c)(4)(vi), 52.21(c)(4)(vii), 52.21(c)(5)(vi)(c), 80-2.1(a), 80-3.1(a), 80-3.2(c), 80-3.2(d)(2), 80-3.2(e), 80-3.3(a)(1), 80-3.3(a)(2), 80-3.4(a), 80-3.6(b), 80-3.6(d)(2), 80-3.6(h)(3)(v), and 80-5.17 of the Regulations of the Commissioner be amended; that sections 52.21(c)(3)(vii), 52.21(c)(5)(vii), 80-2.4(a)(4), 80-3.10, and 80-5.20 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education be added; that section 80-5.15 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education be repealed and a new section 80-5.15 be added; and that section 52.21(c)(4)(viii) of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education be repealed, as submitted, effective July 13, 2006.

 

 

 

Timetable for Implementation

 

          The effective date of the proposed amendment is July 13, 2006. However, a transition period for implementing the new certification requirements is established. The old series requirements will still be applicable to candidates who apply for provisional certification by September 1, 2006 and qualify for the certificate by September 1, 2007, except for candidates who have completed a registered program leading to that certificate who will have until September 1, 2007 to apply and qualify for provisional

certification under the old series.  




 

Attachments


AMENDMENT TO THE RULES OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS AND REGULATIONS OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION

          Pursuant to sections 207, 210, 305, 3001, 3003, 3004, 3006, 3007, 3009, and 3604 of the Education Law.

1.  Section 7.1 of the Rules of the Board of Regents is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          7.1 Issuance and classification.

          (a) The commissioner shall make regulations governing the training and certification of all persons requiring certification employed in the public schools of the State.  The certificates issued pursuant to such regulations shall be of the following general classifications:

          (1) certificates for administrative and supervisory and educational leadership service;

          (2) . . .

          (3) . . .

          (4) . . .

          (5) . . .

          (b) The commissioner shall issue a regional credential pursuant to the provisions of section [80.2(s)] 80-5.8 of this Title.

          (c) . . .

          2.  The title of subparagraph (xvii) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (b) of section 52.21 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (xvii) Alternative classroom teacher certification program.

          3.  Clause (b) of subparagraph (ii) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of section 52.21 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (b) Programs shall require candidates to possess a permanent or professional certificate in the classroom teaching service or pupil personnel service, or to demonstrate the potential for instructional leadership based on prior experiences that are evaluated using criteria established by the program and uniformly applied.  Programs shall inform applicants in writing prior to admission that the State Education Department requires for the initial certificate as a school building leader that the candidate shall have successfully completed three years of classroom teaching service and/or pupil personnel service experience in public or non-public schools N-12.

          4.  Clause (b) of subparagraph (ii) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (c) of section 52.21 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (b) Programs shall require candidates to possess a permanent or professional certificate in the classroom teaching service or pupil personnel service, or to demonstrate the potential for instructional leadership based on prior experiences that are evaluated using criteria established by the program and uniformly applied.  Programs shall inform applicants in writing prior to admission that the State Education Department requires for the professional certificate as a school district leader that the candidate shall have successfully completed three years of classroom teaching service and/or educational leadership service and/or pupil personnel service experience in public or non-public schools N-12.

          5.  Clause (c) of subparagraph (vi) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (c) of section 52.21 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (c) Candidates shall have completed successfully the [written and performance components of the State assessment in school district leadership] New York State assessment for school district leadership.  The requirement of achieving a satisfactory level of performance on the New York State assessment for school district leadership shall be waived if the candidate completes the registered program prior to the availability of such New York State assessment.  The department shall determine the date on which such assessment is available and required.

          6.  Subparagraph (vii) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (c) of section 52.21 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is added, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (vii) Requirements for companion programs in school district leadership not leading to the professional certificate.  Institutions that offer a registered program in school district leadership leading to the professional certificate may have registered a companion program to that program, for students who do not seek certification in New York State, which companion program does not lead to the professional certificate.  The companion program in school district leadership shall require the candidate to meet all requirements prescribed in section 52.21(c) of this Part for a program in school district leadership that leads to the professional certificate, except the requirement that the candidate shall have completed successfully the New York State assessment for school district leadership.

          7.  Subparagraph (iii) of paragraph (4) of subdivision (c) of section 52.21 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (iii) Requirements for recommending candidates for transitional D certificates.

          (a) The program may recommend that the department issue transitional D certificates to admitted candidates who meet the following requirements:

          (1) . . .

          (2) . . .

(3) State assessment.  Candidates shall pass the [written component of the State assessment in school district leadership] New York State assessment for school district leadership, provided that such assessment is available at the time the candidate applies and upon application qualifies for the transitional D certificate.  The department shall determine the date on which such assessment is available and required.

          (b) While serving as a school district leader under a transitional D certificate, candidates shall complete all remaining program requirements, including but not limited to the mentored leadership experience and supervised experience requirement for the professional certificate as a school district leader, as prescribed in subparagraph (vi) of this paragraph.

          8.  Subparagraph (vi) of paragraph (4) of subdivision (c) of section 52.21 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (vi) [Leadership experiences] Mentored and supervised experience.

          (a) Mentored leadership experience.   Programs shall require candidates to successfully complete one of the following types of mentored leadership experiences:

          [(a)] (1) . . .

          [(b)] (2) mentored leadership experiences shall:

          [(1)] (i)  . . .

          [(2)] (ii) . . .

          [(3)] (iii) . . .

          [(c)] (3) the leadership experiences specified in [clause (b) of this subparagraph] subclause (2) of this clause shall occur throughout the program of study.  In addition, they shall culminate in a full-time experience of at least 15 weeks that is structured to provide leadership responsibilities of increasing breadth and depth.

[(d)] (4) alternatively, the leadership experiences specified in [clause (b) of this subparagraph] subclause (2) of this clause may occur in another competency-based format different from that prescribed in [clause (c) of this subparagraph] subclause (3) of this clause provided that the program demonstrates that such format is substantially equivalent to the format prescribed in [clause (c) of this subparagraph] subclause (3) of this clause.

          (b) Supervised experience requirement for the professional certificate.  Programs shall require the candidate to successfully complete the experience requirement for the professional certificate of three years of educational leadership service and/or classroom teaching experience and/or pupil personnel service experience in public or non-public schools N-12, which must include at least one year of service as a school district leader under the transitional D certificate, as prescribed in section 80-5.15(b)(3) of this Title.  Such experience shall include but not be limited to mentored experience as prescribed in clause (a) of this subparagraph and additional experience while under the transitional D certificate needed to meet the experience requirement for the professional certificate as a school district leader.  The program shall provide the candidate with support and supervision while the candidate obtains such additional experience under the transitional D certificate.

          9.  Subparagraph (vii) of paragraph (4) of subdivision (c) of section 52.21 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (vii) Requirements for program completion and recommendation for the professional certificate as a school district leader.

          (a) The candidate shall meet the following requirements for program completion leading to the professional certificate as a school district leader:

          [(a)] (1) . . .

          [(b)] (2) . . .

          [(c)] (3) Candidates shall [have successfully completed the written and performance components of the State assessment in school district leadership] hold the transitional D certificate.

          (4) Candidates shall have successfully completed the experience requirement for the professional certificate as a school district leader, as prescribed in section 80-5.15(b)(3) of this Title.

          (b) For the candidate to be issued a professional certificate as a school district leader, the program must recommend to the department that the candidate be issued the professional certificate.  In order to be recommended, the candidate must meet the requirements for program completion prescribed in clause (a) of this subparagraph.

          10.  Subparagraph (viii) of paragraph (4) of subdivision (c) of section 52.21 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is repealed, effective July 13, 2006.

          11.  Clause (c) of subparagraph (vi) of paragraph (5) of subdivision (c) of section 52.21 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (c) Candidates shall successfully complete the [written and performance components of the State assessment for school district business leaders] New York State assessment for school district business leadership.  The requirement of achieving a satisfactory level of performance on the New York State assessment for school district business leadership shall be waived if the candidate completes the registered program prior to the availability of such New York State assessment.  The department shall determine the date on which such assessment is available and required.

          12.  Subparagraph (vii) of paragraph (5) of subdivision (c) of section 52.21 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is added, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (vii) Requirements for companion programs in school district business leadership not leading to the professional certificate.  Institutions that offer a registered program in school district business leadership leading to the professional certificate may have registered a companion program to that program, for students who do not seek certification in New York State, which companion program does not lead to the professional certificate.  The companion program in school district business leadership shall require the candidate to meet all requirements prescribed in section 52.21(c) of this Part for a program in school district business leadership that leads to the professional certificate, except the requirement that the candidate shall have completed successfully the New York State assessment for school district business leadership.

          13.  The title of Subpart 80-2 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

SUBPART 80-2

REQUIREMENTS FOR [TEACHERS'] CERTIFICATES IN THE CLASSROOM TEACHING SERVICE APPLIED AND QUALIFIED FOR ON OR BEFORE FEBRUARY 1, 2004, THE ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY SERVICE APPLIED FOR ON OR BEFORE SEPTEMBER 1, 2006, AND THE PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICE

          14.  Subdivision (a) of section 80-2.1 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

(a) Application of this Subpart.

(1) Provisional certificates.

          (i) Candidates who apply for provisional teachers' certificates valid for classroom teaching service on or before February 1, 2004, and who upon such application qualify for such provisional certification effective on or before February 1, 2004 shall be subject to the requirements of this Subpart.  Candidates who do not meet [this condition] these conditions shall be subject to the requirements of Subpart 80-3 of this Part, unless otherwise specifically prescribed in this Part.

          (ii) Candidates who apply for the provisional certificate in the title school administrator and supervisor on or before September 1, 2006, and who qualify for such provisional certification on or before September 1, 2007 shall be subject to the requirements of this Subpart.  Candidates who do not meet these conditions shall be subject to the requirements of Subpart 80-3 of this Part, unless otherwise specifically prescribed in this Part.  The requirement that the candidate must apply for the provisional certificate in the title school administrator and supervisor on or before September 1, 2006 shall not apply to a candidate who has completed a program leading to that certificate registered pursuant to Part 52 of this Title.  In that case, the candidate must apply for the certificate on or before September 1, 2007 and also qualify for the certificate on or before September 1, 2007 to be subject to the requirements of this Subpart.

          (2) Permanent certificates.

          (i) Candidates who apply for permanent teachers' certificates in the classroom teaching service shall be subject to the requirements of this Subpart, provided that they have been issued a provisional teacher's certificate in the title for which the permanent certificate is sought and have met all requirements for the permanent certificate on or before February 1, 2004 or while under a provisional certificate that was in effect after that date.  Candidates who do note meet these conditions shall be subject to the requirements of Subpart 80-3 of this Part, unless otherwise specifically prescribed in this Part.

          (ii) Candidates who apply for permanent certificates in the title school administrator and supervisor shall be subject to the requirements of this Subpart, provided that they have been issued a provisional certificate in this title and either have met all requirements for the permanent certificate on or before September 1, 2007 or while under a provisional certificate that was in effect after that date.  Candidates who do not meet these conditions shall be subject to the requirements of Subpart 80-3 of this Part, unless otherwise specifically prescribed in this Part.

(iii) (a) Candidates who apply for permanent certificates in the title school district administrator on or before September 1, 2006, and who qualify for such permanent certification on or before September 1, 2007 shall be subject to the requirements of this Subpart, except in cases prescribed in clause (b) of this subparagraph for which the time period for qualifying for permanent certification is extended.  The requirement that the candidate must apply for the permanent certificate in the title school district administrator on or before September 1, 2006 shall not apply to a candidate who has completed a program leading to that certificate registered pursuant to Part 52 of this Title.  In that case, the candidate must apply for the certificate on or before September 1, 2007 and also qualify for the certificate on or before September 1, 2007 to be subject to the requirements of this Subpart.

(b) Candidates who apply for permanent certificates in the title school district administrator on or before September 1, 2006, and upon application are certified or otherwise authorized by law to serve as school business administrators, are serving as school business administrators, and meet all requirements for the permanent certificate as a school district administrator except the experience requirement, shall have until September 1, 2010 to qualify for the permanent certificate as a school district administrator under the requirements of this Subpart.

(c) Candidates who do not meet the conditions of clauses (a) or (b) of this subparagraph shall be subject to the requirements of Subpart 80-3, unless otherwise specifically prescribed in this Part.

(iv) Candidates who apply for permanent certificates in the title school business administrator on or before September 1, 2006, and who qualify for such permanent certification on or before September 1, 2007 shall be subject to the requirements of this Subpart.  Candidates who do not meet these conditions shall be subject to the requirements of Subpart 80-3 of this Part, unless otherwise specifically prescribed in this Part.  The requirement that the candidate must apply for the permanent certificate in the title school business administrator on or before September 1, 2006 shall not apply to a candidate who has completed a program leading to that certificate registered pursuant to Part 52 of this Title.  In that case, the candidate must apply for the certificate on or before September 1, 2007 and also qualify for the certificate on or before September 1, 2007 to be subject to the requirements of this Subpart.

(3)  . . .

          (4) Candidates who apply for a provisional or permanent [teacher's] certificate valid for pupil personnel service [or administrative and supervisory service] shall be subject to the requirements of this Subpart.

          15.  Paragraph (4) of subdivision (a) of section 80-2.4 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is added, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (4) The permanent certificate as a school district administrator shall qualify the holder to serve as a school district administrator, school administrator and supervisor, and school business administrator.

          16.  The title of Subpart 80-3 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

SUBPART 80-3

REQUIREMENTS FOR [TEACHERS'] CERTIFICATES IN THE CLASSROOM TEACHING SERVICE APPLIED FOR ON OR AFTER FEBRUARY 2, 2004 AND IN THE EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP SERVICE APPLIED FOR ON OR AFTER SEPTEMBER 2, 2006

17.  Subdivision (a) of section 80-3.1 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (a) Application of this Subpart.

          (1) Candidates who apply on or after February 2, 2004 for [teachers'] certificates valid for classroom teaching service, and on or after September 2, 2006 for certificates valid for the educational leadership service, shall be subject to the requirements of this Subpart, unless otherwise specifically prescribed in this Part, and except as prescribed in paragraph (2) of this subdivision.

          (2) (i) Candidates who apply for permanent [teachers'] certificates in the classroom teaching service shall be subject to the requirements of Subpart 80-2 of this Part, provided that they have been issued a provisional [teacher's] certificate in the title for which the permanent certificate is sought and have met all requirements for the permanent certificate on or before February 1, 2004 or while under a valid provisional certificate that was in effect after that date.

          (ii) Candidates who apply for the permanent certificate in the title school administrator and supervisor shall be subject to the requirements of Subpart 80-2 of this Part, provided that they have been issued a provisional certificate in this title and either have met all requirements for the permanent certificate on or before September 1, 2007 or while under a valid provisional certificate that was in effect after that date.

          (3) Candidates who apply for [teachers'] certificates valid for pupil personnel service [or administrative and supervisory service] shall be subject to the requirements of Subpart 80-2 of this Part.

          18.  Subdivision (c) of section 80-3.2 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (c) The requirements for extensions or annotations of [teachers'] certificates in the classroom teaching service set forth in Subpart 80-4 of this Part shall be applicable.

          19.  Paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of section 80-3.2 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (2) The certificate forms for pupil personnel service [, and administrative and supervisory service] shall be the forms prescribed in Subpart 80-2 of this Part.

          20.  Subdivision (e) of section 80-3.2 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (e) Certificate titles.

          (1) Certificate titles in the classroom teaching service.  Candidates for whom the requirements of this Subpart are applicable, pursuant to the conditions prescribed in section 80-3.1(a) of this Subpart, shall be issued the following certificate titles in the classroom teaching service:

          (i) . . .

          (ii) . . .

          (iii) . . .

          (iv) . . .

          (v) . . .

          (vi)  . . .

          (vii) . . .

          (viii) . . .

          (ix) . . .

          (x)  . . .

          (xi) . . .

          (xii) . . .

          (xiii) . . .

          (xiv) . . .

          (xv) . . .

          (xvi) . . .

          (xvii) . . .

          (xviii) . . .

          (xix) . . .

          (xx) . . .

          (xxi) . . .       

          (xxii) . . .

          (xxiii) . . .

          (xxiv) . . .

          (xxv) . . .

          (xxvi) . . .

          (xxvii) . . .

          (xxviii) . . .

          (xxix) . . .

          (xxx) . . .

          (xxxi) . . .

          (xxxii) . . .

          (xxxiii) . . .

          (xxxiv) . . .

          (xxxv) . . .

          (xxxvi) . . .

          (xxxvii) . . .

          (xxxviii) . . .

          (xxxix)

          (xl) . . .

          (xli) . . .

          (xlii) . . .

          (xliii) . . .

          (xliv) . . .

          (xlv) . . .

          (xlvi) . . .

          (xlvii) . . .

          (2) The certificate titles issued for pupil personnel service [, and administrative and supervisory service] shall be the titles prescribed in Subpart 80-2 of this Part.

          (3) The certificate, license or credential titles for supplemental school personnel, [teaching in nonregistered evening schools] teachers of adult, community and continuing education, regional credential, and internship certificate shall be those prescribed in Subpart 80-5 of this Part.

          21.  The title of section 80-3.3 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          80-3.3 Requirements for the initial certificate in the classroom teaching service.

          22.  Paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of section 80-3.3 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (1) Duration.  The initial certificate in the classroom teaching service shall be valid for five years from its effective date.

          23.  Paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of section 80-3.3 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (2) A candidate with a baccalaureate or higher degree who holds a certificate issued by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards in the title which the department has determined to be equivalent to the title of the initial certificate in the classroom teaching service sought shall be deemed to have met the requirements for such initial certificate prescribed in subdivision (b) or (c) of this section.

          24.  The title of section 80-3.4 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          80-3.4 Requirements for the professional certificate in the classroom teaching service.

          25.  Subdivision (a) of section 80-3.4 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (a) General requirements.

          (1) Validity of certificate.  The professional certificate in the classroom teaching service shall be continuously valid, provided that the professional development requirement prescribed in section 80-3.6 of this Subpart is met by the professional certificate holder.  The professional certificate holder shall be required to meet such professional development requirement to maintain the continued validity of the professional certificate.

          (2) The candidate shall meet the requirements for the initial certificate in the classroom teaching service for the certificate title sought or the requirements for the transitional C certificate for career changers and others holding a graduate degree or professional degree, as prescribed in section [80-3.5(a)] 80-5.14 of this [Subpart] Part, for the certificate title sought.

          26.  Subdivision (b) of section 80-3.6 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (b) Mandatory requirement.

          (1) Requirements.

          (i) . . .

          (ii) . . .

          (iii) Requirements for holders of professional certificates in the educational leadership service.  The holder of a professional certificate in the educational leadership service shall be required to complete successfully 175 clock hours of acceptable professional development during the professional development period.

(iv) An individual holding more than one professional certificate in the classroom teaching service and/or educational leadership service shall be required to complete 175 clock hours of acceptable professional development during the five-year professional development period.  An individual holding a level III teaching assistant certificate and one or more professional certificates in the classroom teaching service and/or educational leadership service shall be required to complete 175 clock hours of professional development during the five-year professional development period, unless the individual does not hold a professional certificate during the entire five-year professional development period, in which case the individual shall be required to complete 75 clock hours of professional development during the five-year professional development period.

          (2) . . .

          (3) . . .

          (4) Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (1) of this subdivision, a holder of a certificate in the classroom teaching service who achieves certification from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards shall be deemed to have met the professional development requirement, prescribed in this subdivision, for the five-year professional development period in which such national board certification is achieved.

          27.  Paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of section 80-3.6 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (2) For individuals not regularly employed by an applicable school in New York in a professional development year, acceptable professional development for such year shall be study in the content area of [the] any certificate subject to the professional development requirement held by the individual or pedagogy related to such certificate:

          (i) . . .

          (ii) offered by:

          (a) . . .

          (b) the following entities located in New York State: a school district, a board of cooperative educational services, a teacher resource and computer training center, a leadership academy, [or] a special education teacher resource center, a collective bargaining organization or other organization or association that represents on a regional or statewide basis the interests of individuals holding certificates issued under Part 80 of this Title, or a comparable entity located outside New York State; or

          (c) . . .

          28.  Subparagraph (v) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (h) of section 80-3.6 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          (v) The [professional] certificate holder shall [have the burden of proof to demonstrate] submit evidence documenting that he or she has met the professional development requirement prescribed in this section.

          29.  The title of section 80-3.7 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          80-3.7 Satisfaction of education requirements for certification in the classroom teaching service through individual evaluation.

          30.  Section 80-3.10 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is added, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          80-3.10 Certificates for the educational leadership service.

(a) School building leader.  (Principal, housemaster, supervisor, department chairman, assistant principal, coordinator, unit head and any other person serving more than 25 percent of his or her assignment in any building level leadership position shall hold this certificate.)

(1) Initial certificate.

(i) Validity of certificate.  The initial certificate shall be valid for five years from its effective date.

(ii) Requirements for an initial certificate as a school building leader in the educational leadership service.  The candidate shall meet the requirements in each of the following clauses:

(a) Education.  The candidate shall meet the education requirement by meeting the requirements in one of the following subclauses:

(1) The candidate shall hold a master's or higher degree from a regionally accredited higher education institution or an equivalently approved higher education institution as determined by the department and have successfully completed a program leading to the initial certificate as a school building leader in the educational leadership service registered pursuant to section 52.21(c)(2) of this Title, or its equivalent as determined by the department.

(2) Interstate agreement on qualifications of educational personnel.  The candidate may meet the educational requirement by successfully completing a program of preparation for a school building leader or its equivalent at an institution of higher education approved pursuant to section 3030 of the Education Law, the interstate agreement on qualifications of educational personnel.

(b) Examination.  The candidate shall submit evidence of having achieved a satisfactory level of performance on the New York State assessment for school building leadership, provided that such assessment is available at the time the candidate applies and upon application qualifies for the initial certificate.  The department shall determine the date on which such assessment is available and required.

(c) Experience.  The candidate shall have successfully completed three years of classroom teaching service and/or pupil personnel service experience in public or non-public schools N-12.

(2) Professional certificate.

(i) Validity of certificate.  The professional certificate for school building leaders shall be continuously valid, provided that the professional development requirement prescribed in section 80-3.6 of this Subpart is met by the professional certificate holder.  The professional certificate holder shall be required to meet such professional development requirement to maintain the continued validity of the professional certificate.

(ii) Requirements for the professional certificate as a school building leader in the educational leadership service.   The candidate shall have successfully completed, in addition to the requirements for the initial certificate: three years of school experience in an educational leadership position in public or non-public schools N-12, including at least one year of such experience as a school building leader.  The candidate who completes this requirement in total or part through providing educational leadership service in a school district or board of cooperative educational services in New York State shall be required to participate in a mentored program in the first year of employment, unless the candidate has successfully completed two years of educational leadership service prior to such public school service. 

(b) School district leader.  (Superintendent of schools, district superintendent, deputy superintendent, associate superintendent, assistant superintendent and any other person having responsibilities involving general district-wide administration, except a person serving as a school district business leader, shall hold this certificate.)

(1) Validity of professional certificate.  The professional certificate as a school district leader shall be continuously valid, provided that the professional development requirement prescribed in section 80-3.6 of this Subpart is met by the professional certificate holder.  The professional certificate holder shall be required to meet such professional development requirement to maintain the continued validity of the professional certificate.

(2) Holders of a professional certificate as a school district leader may not serve as a school building leader unless they are certified as a school building leader or school administrator and supervisor under the requirements of Part 80 of this Title and may not serve as a school district business leader unless they are certified as a school district business leader or school business administrator under the requirements of Part 80 of this Title or are otherwise authorized by law to serve as a school district business leader.

(3) Requirements for a professional certificate as a school district leader in the educational leadership service.  The candidate shall meet the requirements of subparagraph (i) of this paragraph or the alternative requirements of either subparagraphs (ii) or (iii) of this paragraph.

(i) The candidate shall meet the requirements in each of the following clauses:

(a) Education.  The candidate shall meet the following education requirements:

(1) The candidate shall hold a master's or higher degree from a regionally accredited higher education institution or an equivalently approved higher education institution as determined by the department; and

(2) either:

(i) have successfully completed a New York State program leading to a professional certificate as a school district leader in the educational leadership service registered pursuant to section 52.21(c)(3) of this Title, or its equivalent as determined by the department.  As part of the program completion requirements, the candidate shall have successfully completed at least sixty semester hours of graduate study, which may include graduate study completed prior to admission to the program, and achieved a satisfactory level of performance on the New York State assessment for school district leadership.   The requirement of achieving a satisfactory level of performance on the New York State assessment for school district leadership shall be waived if the candidate completes the registered program prior to the availability of such New York State assessment.  The department shall determine the date on which such assessment is available and required; or

(ii) have successfully completed an educational leadership program outside of New York State that is equivalent to a program leading to a professional certificate as a school district leader in the educational leadership service registered pursuant to section 52.21(c) (3) of this Title,  including a requirement to pass an assessment equivalent to the New York State assessment for school district leadership, or alternatively the candidate shall satisfy this component of the educational leadership program by passing the New York State assessment for school district leadership.   The requirement of achieving a satisfactory level of performance on an assessment equivalent to the New York State assessment for school district leadership or alternatively passing such New York State assessment shall be waived if the candidate completes the program prior to the availability of such New York State assessment.  The department shall determine the date on which such assessment is available.  The candidate shall have successfully completed at least 60 semester hours of graduate study, which may include graduate study completed outside of the educational leadership program.

(b) Experience.  The candidate shall have successfully completed three years of classroom teaching service and/or educational leadership service and/or pupil personnel service experience in public or non-public schools N-12.

(ii) Alternative route one, the alternative school district leader certification program.  A candidate may qualify for a professional certificate as a school district leader through meeting the requirements in the alternative school district leader certification program for exceptionally qualified persons, as prescribed in section 80-5.15 of this Part.

(iii) Alternative route two, the certification of exceptionally qualified persons through screening panel review.  The Commissioner of Education, at the request of a board of education or board of cooperative educational services, may provide for the issuance of a professional certificate as a school district leader (superintendent of schools) to exceptionally qualified persons who do not meet all of the graduate course or school teaching requirements in subparagraph (i) of this paragraph, but whose exceptional training and experience are the substantial equivalent of such requirements and qualify such persons for duties of a superintendent of schools.  Prior to the appointment of any such individual, the board must obtain the approval of the commissioner.  In its formal request to the department the board must submit its resolution noting approval of the request, the job description, its rationale for requesting such certification of the individual, a statement identifying the exceptional qualifications of the candidate, the individual's completed application for certification, vitae and official transcripts of collegiate study.  The certificate, if issued, will be valid only for service in the district making the request.  The commissioner will refer the materials submitted by the board to a screening panel consisting of representatives of the department and appropriate educational organizations for review and advice.

(c) School district business leader. (Deputy superintendent of schools for business, associate superintendent of schools for business, assistant superintendent of schools for business and any other person having professional responsibility for the business operation of the school district shall hold this certificate.)

(1) Validity of certificate.  The professional certificate as a school district business leader shall be continuously valid, provided that the professional development requirement prescribed in section 80-3.6 of this Subpart is met by the professional certificate holder.  The professional certificate holder shall be required to meet such professional development requirement to maintain the continued validity of the professional certificate.

(2) Holders of a professional certificates as school district business leader may not serve as a school building leader unless they are certified as a school building leader or school administrator and supervisor under the requirements of Part 80 of this Title and may not serve as a school district leader unless they are certified as a school district leader or school district administrator under the requirements of Part 80 of this Title. 

(3) Requirements for a professional certificate as a school district business leader in the educational leadership service.  The candidate shall meet the following requirements:

(i) The candidate shall hold a master's or higher degree from a regionally accredited higher education institution or an equivalently approved higher education institution as determined by the department; and

(ii) either:

(a) have successfully completed a New York State program leading to a professional certificate as a school district business leader in the educational leadership service registered pursuant to section 52.21(c)(5) of this Title, or its equivalent as determined by the department.  As part of the program completion requirements, the candidate shall have successfully completed at least sixty semester hours of graduate study, which may include graduate study completed prior to admission to the program, and achieved a satisfactory level of performance on the New York State assessment for school district business leadership.  The requirement of achieving a satisfactory level of performance on the New York State assessment for school district business leadership shall be waived if the candidate completes the registered program prior to the availability of such New York State assessment.  The department shall determine the date on which such assessment is available and required; or

(b) have successfully completed an educational leadership program outside of New York State that is equivalent with a program leading to a professional certificate as a school district business leader in the educational leadership service registered pursuant to section 52.21(c)(5) of this Title,  including a requirement to pass an assessment equivalent to the New York State assessment for school district business leadership, or alternatively the candidate shall satisfy this component of the educational leadership program by passing the New York State assessment for school district business leadership.   The requirement of achieving a satisfactory level of performance on an assessment equivalent to the New York State assessment for school district business leadership or alternatively passing such New York State assessment shall be waived if the candidate completes the program prior to the availability of such New York State assessment.  The department shall determine the date on which such assessment is available.  The candidate shall have successfully completed at least 60 semester hours of graduate study, which may include graduate study completed outside of the educational leadership program.  

          31.  The title of Subpart 80-5 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

SUBPART 80-5

REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO CLASSROOM TEACHING AND EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP PRACTICE AND SPECIALIZED CREDENTIALS

          32.  The title of section 80-5.6 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          80-5.6 [Supplementary] Supplemental school personnel.

          33.  The title of section 80-5.13 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

          80-5.13 Alternative [teacher certification] requirements for classroom teaching certificates.

34.  Section 80-5.15 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is repealed and a new section 80-5.15 is added, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

80-5.15 Alternative requirements for school district leader certificates.

(a) Requirements for the transitional D certificate for service as a school district leader, applicable to a candidate enrolled in an alternative school district leader certification program pursuant to section 52.21(c)(4) of this Title.

(1) General requirements.

(i) Time validity.  The transitional D certificate shall be valid for five years from its effective date and shall not be renewable.

(ii) Limitations.  The transitional D certificate shall authorize a candidate to serve as a school district leader in a school district or board of cooperative educational services (BOCES) which has provided a commitment for employment under an alternative school district leader certification program pursuant to section 52.21(c)(4) of this Title. The transitional D certificate shall only be valid as long as the candidate is matriculated in good standing in a registered alternative school district leader certification program and under the supervision of that program. 

(2) To qualify for the transitional D certificate, the candidate shall meet the requirements in each of the following subparagraphs:

(i) Demonstrated potential through prior leadership experiences.  The candidate must be approved by the department as an exceptionally qualified candidate for a school district leadership position with the substantial equivalent of three years of experience as a teacher, administrator, or pupil personnel provider in a public or non-public school, and the candidate shall submit to the department adequate evidence demonstrating such exceptional qualifications.  The candidate shall demonstrate at least three years of exemplary service in a leadership position in an organization or organizations in which the candidate has demonstrated strong performance.  Through this equivalent prior experience, the candidate shall demonstrate the following accomplishments:

(a) developed and promoted a vision for an organization;

(b) collaboratively identified goals and objectives for achieving that vision;

(c) communicated effectively to promote goals;

(d) lead comprehensive long-range planning, informed by multiple data sources for achieving goals;

(e) effected any needed change through ethical decision making based upon factual analysis even in the face of opposition;

(f) established accountability for achieving goals and objectives;

(g) developed staff capability for their roles in achieving goals;

(h) supervised the management of finances and facilities to support achievement of goals; and

(i) applied statutes and regulations in accordance with law and developed and implemented policies in accordance with law.

(ii) Program endorsement.  The candidate shall submit to the department adequate evidence of the registered alternative school district leader certification program's endorsement of the candidate for a transitional D certificate, including the program's description of how the candidate met each criterion used by the program to determine that the candidate had exceptional qualifications for becoming a school district leader with the substantial equivalent of three years of experience as a teacher, administrator, or pupil personnel provider in a public or non-public school.

(iii) Employment and support commitment.  The candidate shall submit satisfactory evidence of a written commitment from a school district or BOCES for district mentored and college supervised employment as a school district leader under the transitional D certificate, with mentoring of candidates for superintendent of schools to be provided by the regional BOCES District Superintendent or the New York City Regional Superintendent, or a superintendent identified by the regional BOCES District Superintendent or New York City Regional Superintendent, subject to the approval of the employing authorities.

(iv) Education.  The candidate shall hold a graduate degree (academic or professional) from an accredited institution of higher education or from an institution authorized by the Board of Regents to confer degrees and submit satisfactory evidence of matriculation in a registered alternative school district leader certification program leading to a professional certificate.

(v) Examination.  The candidate shall submit evidence of having achieved a satisfactory level of performance on the New York State assessment for school district leadership, provided that such assessment is available at the time the candidate applies and upon application qualifies for the transitional D certificate.  The department shall determine the date on which such assessment is available and required.

(b) Requirements for the professional certificate as a school district leader, applicable for a candidate holding a transitional D certificate and matriculated in an alternative school district leader certification program pursuant to section 52.21(c)(4) of this Title.  To qualify for the professional certificate, the candidate shall meet the requirements in each of the following paragraphs:

(1) The candidate shall hold the transitional D certificate.

(2) Education.  The candidate shall hold a graduate degree (academic or professional) from an accredited institution of higher education or from an institution authorized by the Board of Regents to confer degrees and submit satisfactory evidence of having successfully completed an alternative school district leadership program leading to the professional certificate, registered by the department pursuant to section 52.21(c)(4) of this Title.  Such registered alternative school district leadership program shall include a mentored experience, in accordance with the requirements of section 52.21(c)(4) of this Title.  Upon program completion, the candidate shall have successfully completed at least 60 semester hours of graduate study that may include graduate study completed prior to admission to the registered alternative school district leadership program and graduate study completed in such program.

(3) Experience.  The candidate shall have successfully completed three years of educational leadership service and/or classroom teaching service and/or pupil personnel service experience in public or non-public schools N-12, which must include at least one year of service in a position that requires certification as a school district leader under the transitional D certificate.

35.  Section 80-5.17 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is amended, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

80-5.17 Conditional initial certificate [in the classroom teaching service].

(a) Conditional initial certificate in the classroom teaching service.  For initial certification in a certificate title in the classroom teaching service for which this Part requires completion of an examination requirement, the commissioner may issue to a candidate who has not met such examination requirement a two-year nonrenewable conditional initial certificate, notwithstanding that the examination requirement has not been met, and deem that all other requirements for the initial teacher's certificate in the certificate title in the classroom teaching service have been met, provided that the candidate holds a valid regular teacher's certificate in the same  or an equivalent title by a state which has contracted with the State of New York pursuant to section 3030 of the Education Law, the interstate agreement on qualifications of educational personnel, and provided further that such regular teacher's certificate issued by the other state evidences knowledge, skills and abilities comparable to those required for certification in New York State.

(b) Conditional initial certificate in the title school building leader.  The commissioner may issue a two-year nonrenewable conditional initial certificate in the title school building leader to a candidate who applies for the certificate after September 1, 2006 and meets the following requirements:

(1) the candidate has completed successfully the education requirement prescribed in section 80-3.10 (a)(1) of this Part and all other requirements for the initial certificate in the title school building leader, except the examination requirement; and

(2) the candidate holds a valid regular certificate in an equivalent title to the title school building leader issued by a state which has contracted with the State of New York pursuant to section 3030 of the Education Law, the interstate agreement on qualifications of educational personnel, provided further that such certificate issued by the other state evidence knowledge, skills and abilities comparable to those required for certification in New York State.

[(b)] (c) To meet the requirements for a full initial certificate in [such] the certificate title of the conditional initial certificate, the candidate shall be required to submit to the commissioner, at least 60 days prior to the expiration of the conditional initial certificate, satisfactory evidence of meeting the examination requirement for the initial certificate title sought, as prescribed in this Part.  If the candidate meets such examination requirement and all other requirements for the initial certificate title sought, the commissioner shall issue [an] the initial certificate.

36.  Section 80-5.20 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education is added, effective July 13, 2006, as follows:

80-5.20 Endorsement of certificates for service as a school district leader and school district business leader.

(a) School district leader. 

(1) The commissioner may endorse the certificate of another state or territory of the United States or the District of Columbia for service as a school district leader, provided that the candidate meets the following requirements:

(i) The candidate shall hold a valid certificate of another state or territory of the United States or the District of Columbia that is equivalent to the professional certificate as a school district leader;

(ii)  The candidate shall meet the general requirements for certificates prescribed in Subpart 80-1 of this Part, including but not limited to the requirements of section 80-1.3 relating to citizenship, section 80-1.4 relating to study in child abuse identification and reporting, and school violence prevention and intervention; and section 80-1.11 relating to a criminal history record check.

(iii)  The candidate shall hold a master's or higher degree from a regionally accredited higher education institution or an equivalently approved higher education institution as determined by the department, or have equivalent educational preparation as determined by the commissioner. 

(iv) The candidate shall have had at least three years of satisfactory experience in a public school (grades N-12) in another state or territory of the United States or the District of Columbia in a position that would have required the professional certificate as a school district leader for employment in New York State and while under a certificate issued by such other state authorizing such service, which experience must have been completed within ten years immediately preceding the application for endorsement of the out-of-state certificate; or the candidate shall have equivalent experience as determined by the commissioner.

 (2) Such candidate who meets the endorsement requirements in paragraph (1) of this subdivision shall be issued a professional certificate as a school district leader.  The professional certificate as a school district leader shall be continuously valid, provided that the professional development requirement prescribed in section 80-3.6 of this Subpart is met by the professional certificate holder.  The professional certificate holder shall be required to meet such professional development requirement to maintain the continued validity of the professional certificate.   

(b) School district business leader. 

(1) The commissioner may endorse the certificate of another state or territory of the United States or the District of Columbia for service as a school district business leader, provided that the candidate meets the following requirements:

(i) The candidate shall hold a valid certificate of another state or territory of the United States or the District of Columbia that is equivalent to the professional certificate as a school district business leader;

(ii)  The candidate shall meet the general requirements for certificates prescribed in Subpart 80-1 of this Part, including but not limited to the requirements of section 80-1.3 relating to citizenship, section 80-1.4 relating to study in child abuse identification and reporting, and school violence prevention and intervention; and section 80-1.11 relating to a criminal history record check.

(ii)  The candidate shall hold a master's or higher degree from a regionally accredited higher education institution or an equivalently approved higher education institution as determined by the department, or have equivalent educational preparation as determined by the commissioner. 

(iii) The candidate shall have had at least three years of satisfactory experience in a public school (grades N-12) in another state or territory of the United States or the District of Columbia in a position that would have required the professional certificate as a school district business leader for employment in New York State and while under a certificate issued by such other state authorizing such service, which experience must have been completed within ten years immediately preceding the application for endorsement of the out-of-state certificate; or the candidate shall have equivalent experience as determined by the commissioner.

 (2) Such candidate who meets the endorsement requirements in paragraph (1) of this subdivision shall be issued a professional certificate as a school district business leader.  The professional certificate as a school district business leader shall be continuously valid, provided that the professional development requirement prescribed in section 80-3.6 of this Subpart is met by the professional certificate holder.  The professional certificate holder shall be required to meet such professional development requirement to maintain the continued validity of the professional certificate.  


PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO SECTION 7.1 OF THE RULES OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS AND SECTION 52.21(c) AND SUBPARTS 80-2, 80-3, and 80-5 OF THE REGULATIONS OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION PURSUANT TO SECTIONS 207, 210, 305, 3001, 3003, 3004, 3006, 3007, 3009, and 3604 OF THE EDUCATION LAW RELATING TO THE REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTIFICATION IN THE EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP SERVICE

ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC COMMENT

The proposed rule was published in the State Register on April 19, 2006.  Below is a summary of written comments received by the State Education Department concerning the proposed rule and the Department's assessment of issues raised by the comments. 

COMMENT:  In general, it appears that the proposed revisions are sound.  School leadership will benefit from strengthening the certification requirements.  School boards rely on superintendents, building principals, and business officials to effectively manage schools under the guidance of policies established by the board.  Raising certification standards will benefit school boards that are making key hiring decisions, enhance the possibilities for successful administrators to achieve recognition and advancement, and improve school performance. 

RESPONSE: No response to this positive comment is necessary.

COMMENT: There is one element that we would strongly encourage for inclusion in the certification and on-going professional development regimen: training regarding the proper roles, responsibilities and relationships pertaining to the board of education and a well-functioning management team.  School boards and these key administrators need to support one another as a team, and school leaders need to develop skills for working with school boards.

RESPONSE:  The content requirements for the college preparation programs leading to certification as a school district leader already require the candidate to develop knowledge and skill necessary "to interact and communicate effectively with school board members in developing and implementing district policies, managing change, and managing district affairs . . . ."  The Department plans to amend section 100.2(dd) of Commissioner's regulations relating to professional development plans that must be adopted by school district and boards of cooperative educational services (BOCES).  At that time, the Department will consider specifying the suggested subject as an appropriate subject for coursework that the school district or BOCES may approve for school leaders through its professional development plan.

COMMENT:  We support the establishment of professional development requirements for school leaders.  However, the proposed regulation requires professional development to be approved by an employing school district or BOCES pursuant to a professional development plan, as prescribed in section 100.2(dd) of Commissioner's Regulations.  That plan is developed through a committee, which is comprised of a majority of teachers, pursuant to section 100.2(dd).  Section 100.2(dd) should be amended to provided for a separate committee controlled by school leaders to develop professional development for school leaders.

RESPONSE:  The proposed rule making did not make any changes to requirements set forth in section 100.2(dd) of the Commissioner's Regulations for the development of professional development plans by school districts and BOCES.  The Department plans to review these requirements in the near future and to establish separate procedural requirements for the development of professional development plans for school leaders.

COMMENT:  We continue to question the value of requiring school leaders to pass an examination for certification.  Strong training, accompanied by practical experience ensures winning school leaders.  Mentoring and intense professional development breeds success. An examination is little more than a barrier to entering the profession, offering little to ensure the quality of the candidate for certification.

RESPONSE: The proposed certification examinations are being designed to measure the knowledge and skills needed by the candidate to function as school leaders.  They are based upon job analyses and knowledge and skills gained in college preparatory programs leading to certification in the educational leadership service.  The examinations are testing for knowledge and skills that were to be learned and developed in the school leadership educational programs.  These examinations will also serve as a measure of the effectiveness of the educational programs.  This is similar to the classroom teaching examinations that are used as one factor in evaluating the teacher education programs.  

The Department is still developing the examinations, and the proposed regulation provides that the candidate must pass an examination, provided that the examination is available.  The examinations will not be made available until the Department has completed needed consultations and made any appropriate adjustments in the content or format of the examinations.  The goal of the consultations will be to ensure the examinations are appropriate to produce qualified school leaders to fill those positions in New York State's public schools. 

COMMENT:  Well prepared school leaders are essential to raising student achievement.  Those trained in quality higher education programs linked directly to schools and children and who continue professional development throughout their careers are most ready to tackle the myriad of challenges facing our diverse education system.  The proposed regulation in large measure achieves these goals.

RESPONSE:  No response to this positive comment is necessary.

COMMENT: We support the provision that allows the endorsement of the certificates of experienced school district leaders and school district business leaders in other states.

RESPONSE:  The proposed amendment permits the endorsement of certificates of another state or territory of the United States or the District of Columbia for service as a school district leader and school business district leader, provided that the candidate meets prescribed education and experience requirements.

COMMENT: We support the regulation permitting professional associations representing school leaders to provide professional development to school leaders.

RESPONSE: The regulation establishes requirements for professional development for holders of the professional certificate in the educational leadership service.  It permits such certificate holders who are not regularly employed by a school district or BOCES to obtain the professional development from a variety of sources, including professional associations representing administrators, teachers, and pupil personnel professionals.